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The Finnish men's national football team arrived in Wales on Monday ahead of a crunch match, without their captain at the helm, or two Ahtisaari Day celebrated for 10th time this year November 11, Ted Urho column: Celebrating the Swedish king who fell off his horse in Germany November 6, Finnish truffle hunters strike black gold with fungus harvest News Now Original November 7, When Labradors Noora and Neea put their specially-trained noses to work, they're striking black gold in southwest Finland - but this black gold isn't Ted Urho column: Celebrating the Swedish king who fell off his horse in Germany Columnists November 6, MTV News: Police investigating far-right plot to target minister, prosecutor December 12, The National Bureau of Investigations NBI says it is investigating a "serious and wide-ranging" plot by far-right activists to carry out criminal offenses "against The alleged incident took place during the time of Four-month sentence for man who threatened Maria Ohisalo Crime December 1, It means he A year old man has apologised in court on Tuesday, for online posts he made about Interior Minister Maria Ohisalo Green.
The comments came on Morning headlines: Wednesday 6th January January 6, Young Lions claim bronze at u20 World Championships The Finnish men's u20 ice hockey team have defeated Russia at the World Championships in Canada Work and Enterprise in Kauniainen.
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See also: Nordic model. Main article: Taxation in Finland. Finland portal. International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 29 September World Bank.
Retrieved 13 July Retrieved 28 October Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 4 May Retrieved 27 March HDRO Human Development Report Office United Nations Development Programme.
Retrieved 11 December Retrieved 22 May Retrieved 25 August Retrieved 24 June Retrieved 22 October Retrieved 8 September Retrieved 21 November Retrieved 21 May Retrieved 28 April Retrieved 26 May Scope Ratings.
Retrieved 27 July Statistics Finland. Retrieved 26 April Retrieved 2 May Retrieved 9 August Archived from the original PDF on 3 June Retrieved 29 December Embassy of Finland.
Archived from the original on 23 July Retrieved 7 May A History of the Global Economy. From to the Present.
Cambridge University Press. Retrieved 9 March Elections in Europe: A Data Handbook. Taloustieto Oy. Retrieved 29 April Archived from the original PDF on 26 March Archived from the original on 7 February Retrieved 15 September A74 Archived from the original on 17 January Archived from the original PDF on 15 April Archived from the original on 15 October Archived from the original PDF on 27 May Archived from the original on 18 March Archived from the original on 11 December Washington: U.
Department of the Army. Scandinavian Journal of History. Westerholm Mitchell European Historical Statistics, Columbia U.
Nokia: the inside story. Coleman The history of Finland. Historical dictionary of Lutheranism. Historical Dictionary of the Music and Musicians of Finland.
American-Scandinavian Review. Thaden Russification in the Baltic Provinces and Finland. Constitutionalist insurgency in Finland: Finnish "passive resistance" against Russification as a case of nonmilitary struggle in the European resistance tradition.
Imperial Borderland: Bobrikov and the Attempted Russification of Finland, — In Time of Storm: Revolution, Civil War and the Ethnolinguistic Issue in Finland.
HIA Book Collection. An expanding network called the Finnish Water Forum helps meet the global demand for better water services.
The Moomins are close to our hearts, appear on products worldwide and were outsourcing long before highly paid consultants started using the term.
Linus Torvalds has won the Millennium Technology Prize for developing the open source operating system Linux, used by millions of people worldwide.
In , you can order design items for immediate delivery as easily as you order food online. Tags Architecture Arctic Art Business Climate Cuisine Design Economy Education Entrepreneurs Environment Equality Fashion Festivals Film Finland Finland Finnishness Food Fun Gender Health Helsinki History Innovation Language Lifestyle Literature Music Nature Politics Research Sauna Slideshows Society Sports Sustainability Technology ThisisFINLAND Magazine Travel Video Visual arts Webpick Wellbeing Work.
The largest immigrant languages are Russian 1. People can only register one language and so bilingual or multilingual language users' language competencies are not properly included.
A citizen of Finland that speaks bilingually Finnish and Swedish will often be registered as a Finnish only speaker in this system.
Similarly "old domestic language" is a category applied to some languages and not others for political not linguistic reasons, for example Russian.
Religions in Finland . With 3. A small minority belongs to the Finnish Orthodox Church 1. Other Protestant denominations and the Roman Catholic Church are significantly smaller, as are the Jewish and other non-Christian communities totalling 1.
In , Finland was the first Nordic country to disestablish its Evangelical Lutheran church by introducing the Church Act, followed by the Church of Sweden in Although the church still maintains a special relationship with the state, it is not described as a state religion in the Finnish Constitution or other laws passed by the Finnish Parliament.
As an autonomous Grand Duchy under Russia —, Finland retained the Lutheran State Church system, and a state church separate from Sweden, later named the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland , was established.
It was detached from the state as a separate judicial entity when the new church law came to force in After Finland had gained independence in , religious freedom was declared in the constitution of and a separate law on religious freedom in Through this arrangement, the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland lost its position as a state church but gained a constitutional status as a national church alongside the Finnish Orthodox Church , whose position however is not codified in the constitution.
In , However, the majority of Lutherans attend church only for special occasions like Christmas ceremonies, weddings, and funerals.
The Lutheran Church estimates that approximately 1. Life expectancy has increased from 71 years for men and 79 years for women in to 79 years for men and 84 years for women in There has been a slight increase or no change in welfare and health inequalities between population groups in the 21st century.
Lifestyle-related diseases are on the rise. More than half a million Finns suffer from diabetes , type 1 diabetes being globally the most common in Finland.
Many children are diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. The number of musculoskeletal diseases and cancers are increasing, although the cancer prognosis has improved.
Allergies and dementia are also growing health problems in Finland. One of the most common reasons for work disability are due to mental disorders, in particular depression.
There are residents for each doctor. In April , Finland was ranked 2nd in Gross National Happiness in a report published by The Earth Institute.
Most pre-tertiary education is arranged at municipal level. Even though many or most schools were started as private schools, today only around 3 percent of students are enrolled in private schools mostly specialist language and international schools , much less than in Sweden and most other developed countries.
Primary school takes normally six years and lower secondary school three years. Most schools are managed by municipal officials. The flexible curriculum is set by the Ministry of Education and the Education Board.
Education is compulsory between the ages of 7 and After lower secondary school, graduates may either enter the workforce directly, or apply to trade schools or gymnasiums upper secondary schools.
Graduation from either formally qualifies for tertiary education. In tertiary education, two mostly separate and non-interoperating sectors are found: the profession-oriented polytechnics and the research-oriented universities.
Education is free and living expenses are to a large extent financed by the government through student benefits.
There are 15 universities and 24 Universities of Applied Sciences UAS in the country. Forest improvement, materials research, environmental sciences, neural networks, low-temperature physics, brain research, biotechnology, genetic technology, and communications showcase fields of study where Finnish researchers have had a significant impact.
Finland has a long tradition of adult education, and by the s nearly one million Finns were receiving some kind of instruction each year.
Forty percent of them did so for professional reasons. Adult education appeared in a number of forms, such as secondary evening schools, civic and workers' institutes, study centres, vocational course centres, and folk high schools.
Study centres allowed groups to follow study plans of their own making, with educational and financial assistance provided by the state.
Folk high schools are a distinctly Nordic institution. Originating in Denmark in the 19th century, folk high schools became common throughout the region.
Adults of all ages could stay at them for several weeks and take courses in subjects that ranged from handicrafts to economics.
Finland is highly productive in scientific research. In , Finland had the fourth most scientific publications per capita of the OECD countries.
In addition, 38 percent of Finland's population has a university or college degree , which is among the highest percentages in the world.
In a new law was enacted considering the universities, which defined that there are 16 of them as they were excluded from the public sector to be autonomous legal and financial entities, however enjoying special status in the legislation.
The change caused deep rooted discussions among the academic circles. English language is important in Finnish education. There are a number of degree programs that are taught in English, which attracts thousands of degree and exchange students every year.
In December the OECD reported that Finnish fathers spend an average of eight minutes a day more with their school-aged children than mothers do. The Finns' love for saunas is generally associated with Finnish cultural tradition in the world.
Sauna is a type of dry steam bath practiced widely in Finland, which is especially evident in the strong tradition around Midsummer and Christmas.
In Finland, the sauna has been a traditional cure or part of the treatment for many different diseases, thanks to the heat, which why the sauna has been a very hygienic place.
There is an old Finnish saying: "Jos sauna, terva ja viina ei auta, on tauti kuolemaksi. Moreover, nearly all Finnish houses have either their own sauna or in multistory apartment houses, a timeshare sauna.
Public saunas were previously common, but the tradition has declined when saunas have been built nearly everywhere private homes, municipal swimming halls, hotels, corporate headquarters, gyms, etc.
At one time, the World Sauna Championships were held in Heinola , Finland, but the death of a Russian competitor in finally stopped organizing the competitions as too dangerous.
The Finnish sauna culture was inscribed on the UNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritage Lists at the 17 December meeting of the UNESCO Intergovernmental Committee for the Safeguarding of the Intangible Cultural Heritage.
As authorized by the state, the Finnish Heritage Agency commits, together with Finnish sauna communities and promoters of the sauna culture, to safeguard the vitality of the sauna tradition and to highlight its importance as part of customs and wellbeing.
Written Finnish could be said to have existed since Mikael Agricola translated the New Testament into Finnish during the Protestant Reformation , but few notable works of literature were written until the 19th century and the beginning of a Finnish national Romantic Movement.
This prompted Elias Lönnrot to collect Finnish and Karelian folk poetry and arrange and publish them as the Kalevala , the Finnish national epic.
The era saw a rise of poets and novelists who wrote in Finnish, notably Aleksis Kivi The Seven Brothers , Minna Canth Anna Liisa , Eino Leino Helkavirsiä , Johannes Linnankoski The Song of the Blood-Red Flower and Juhani Aho The Railroad and Juha.
Many writers of the national awakening wrote in Swedish, such as the national poet J. After Finland became independent, there was a rise of modernist writers , most famously the Finnish-speaking Mika Waltari and Swedish-speaking Edith Södergran.
Frans Eemil Sillanpää was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature in World War II prompted a return to more national interests in comparison to a more international line of thought, characterized by Väinö Linna with his The Unknown Soldier and Under the North Star trilogy.
Besides Lönnrot's Kalevala and Waltari, the Swedish-speaking Tove Jansson , best known as the creator of The Moomins , is the most translated Finnish writer;  her books have been translated into more than 40 languages.
The visual arts in Finland started to form their individual characteristics in the 19th century, when Romantic nationalism was rising in autonomic Finland.
The best known of Finnish painters, Akseli Gallen-Kallela , started painting in a naturalist style, but moved to national romanticism.
Other notable world-famous Finnish painters include Magnus Enckell , Pekka Halonen , Eero Järnefelt , Helene Schjerfbeck and Hugo Simberg. Finland's best-known sculptor of the 20th century was Wäinö Aaltonen , remembered for his monumental busts and sculptures.
Finns have made major contributions to handicrafts and industrial design : among the internationally renowned figures are Timo Sarpaneva , Tapio Wirkkala and Ilmari Tapiovaara.
Finnish architecture is famous around the world, and has contributed significantly to several styles internationally, such as Jugendstil or Art Nouveau , Nordic Classicism and Functionalism.
Among the top 20th-century Finnish architects to gain international recognition are Eliel Saarinen and his son Eero Saarinen.
Architect Alvar Aalto is regarded as among the most important 20th-century designers in the world;  he helped bring functionalist architecture to Finland, but soon was a pioneer in its development towards an organic style.
Much of Finland's classical music is influenced by traditional Karelian melodies and lyrics, as comprised in the Kalevala.
Karelian culture is perceived as the purest expression of the Finnic myths and beliefs, less influenced by Germanic influence than the Nordic folk dance music that largely replaced the kalevaic tradition.
Finnish folk music has undergone a roots revival in recent decades, and has become a part of popular music. The people of northern Finland, Sweden, and Norway, the Sami , are known primarily for highly spiritual songs called joik.
The same word sometimes refers to lavlu or vuelie songs, though this is technically incorrect. The first Finnish opera was written by the German-born composer Fredrik Pacius in In the s Finnish nationalism based on the Kalevala spread, and Jean Sibelius became famous for his vocal symphony Kullervo.
He soon received a grant to study runo singers in Karelia and continued his rise as the first prominent Finnish musician.
In he composed Finlandia , which played its important role in Finland gaining independence. He remains one of Finland's most popular national figures and is a symbol of the nation.
Another one of the most significant and internationally best-known Finnish-born classical composers long before Sibelius was Bernhard Crusell.
Today, Finland has a very lively classical music scene and many of Finland's important composers are still alive, such as Magnus Lindberg , Kaija Saariaho , Kalevi Aho , and Aulis Sallinen.
The composers are accompanied by a large number of great conductors such as Esa-Pekka Salonen , Osmo Vänskä , Jukka-Pekka Saraste , and Leif Segerstam.
Some of the internationally acclaimed Finnish classical musicians are Karita Mattila , Soile Isokoski , Pekka Kuusisto , Olli Mustonen , and Linda Lampenius.
Iskelmä coined directly from the German word Schlager , meaning "hit" is a traditional Finnish word for a light popular song.
Modern Finnish popular music includes a number of prominent rock bands, jazz musicians, hip hop performers, dance music acts, etc.
During the early s, the first significant wave of Finnish rock groups emerged, playing instrumental rock inspired by groups such as The Shadows.
Around , Beatlemania arrived in Finland, resulting in further development of the local rock scene. During the late s and '70s, Finnish rock musicians increasingly wrote their own music instead of translating international hits into Finnish.
During the decade, some progressive rock groups such as Tasavallan Presidentti and Wigwam gained respect abroad but failed to make a commercial breakthrough outside Finland.
This was also the fate of the rock and roll group Hurriganes. The Finnish punk scene produced some internationally acknowledged names including Terveet Kädet in the s.
Hanoi Rocks was a pioneering s glam rock act that inspired the American hard rock group Guns N' Roses , among others.
Many Finnish metal bands have gained international recognition; Finland has been often called the "Promised Land of Heavy Metal", because there are more than 50 metal Bands for every , inhabitants — more than any other nation in the world.
HIM's album Dark Light went gold in the United States. Apocalyptica are an internationally famous Finnish group who are most renowned for mixing strings-led classical music with classic heavy metal.
Other well-known metal bands are Amorphis , Beast in Black , Children of Bodom , Ensiferum , Finntroll , Impaled Nazarene , Insomnium , Korpiklaani , Moonsorrow , Reverend Bizarre , Sentenced , Sonata Arctica , Stratovarius , Swallow the Sun , Turisas , Waltari , and Wintersun.
In the field of electronic music , the most famous Finnish artist in the world is DJ Darude , whose most famous work is an instrumental song "Sandstorm" from That song has not only certified Gold and Platinum in the United States by the Recording Industry Association of America for sales over one million copies,  but has also become a strong part of the internet meme culture.
In the film industry, notable directors include brothers Mika and Aki Kaurismäki , Dome Karukoski , Antti Jokinen , Jalmari Helander , Mauritz Stiller , Edvin Laine , Teuvo Tulio , Spede Pasanen , and Hollywood film director and producer Renny Harlin.
Around twelve feature films are made each year. In Finland, the most significant films include The Unknown Soldier , directed by Edvin Laine in , which is shown on television every Independence Day.
Although Finland's television offerings are largely known for their domestic dramas , such as the long-running soap opera series Salatut elämät ,   there are also internationally known drama series, such as Syke and Bordertown.
Thanks to its emphasis on transparency and equal rights, Finland's press has been rated the freest in the world.
Today, there are around newspapers, popular magazines, 2, professional magazines, 67 commercial radio stations, three digital radio channels and one nationwide and five national public service radio channels.
Each year, around 12, book titles are published and 12 million records are sold. Sanoma publishes the newspaper Helsingin Sanomat its circulation of ,  making it the largest , the tabloid Ilta-Sanomat , the commerce-oriented Taloussanomat and the television channel Nelonen.
The other major publisher Alma Media publishes over thirty magazines, including the newspaper Aamulehti , tabloid Iltalehti and commerce-oriented Kauppalehti.
Worldwide, Finns, along with other Nordic peoples and the Japanese, spend the most time reading newspapers. Yle , the Finnish Broadcasting Company, operates five television channels and thirteen radio channels in both national languages.
Yle is funded through a mandatory television license and fees for private broadcasters. All TV channels are broadcast digitally , both terrestrially and on cable.
The commercial television channel MTV3 and commercial radio channel Radio Nova are owned by Nordic Broadcasting Bonnier and Proventus Industrier.
In regards to telecommunication infrastructure, Finland is the highest ranked country in the World Economic Forum's Network Readiness Index NRI — an indicator for determining the development level of a country's information and communication technologies.
Finland ranked 1st overall in the NRI ranking, unchanged from the year before. Finnish cuisine is notable for generally combining traditional country fare and haute cuisine with contemporary style cooking.
Fish and meat play a prominent role in traditional Finnish dishes from the western part of the country, while the dishes from the eastern part have traditionally included various vegetables and mushrooms.
Refugees from Karelia contributed to foods in eastern Finland. Finnish foods often use wholemeal products rye , barley , oats and berries such as bilberries , lingonberries , cloudberries , and sea buckthorn.
Milk and its derivatives like buttermilk are commonly used as food, drink, or in various recipes. Various turnips were common in traditional cooking, but were replaced with the potato after its introduction in the 18th century.
According to the statistics, red meat consumption has risen, but still Finns eat less beef than many other nations, and more fish and poultry.
This is mainly because of the high cost of meat in Finland. Finland has the world's highest per capita consumption of coffee. There are several holidays in Finland, of which perhaps the most characteristic of Finnish culture include Christmas joulu , Midsummer juhannus , May Day vappu and Independence Day itsenäisyyspäivä.
Of these, Christmas and Midsummer are special in Finland because the actual festivities take place on eves, such as Christmas Eve jouluaatto   and Midsummer's Eve juhannusaatto ,   while Christmas Day joulupäivä and Midsummer's Day juhannuspäivä are more consecrated to rest.
Other public holidays in Finland are New Year's Day uudenvuodenpäivä , Epiphany loppiainen , Good Friday pitkäperjantai , Easter Sunday pääsiäissunnuntai and Easter Monday pääsiäismaanantai , Ascension Day helatorstai , All Saints' Day pyhäinpäivä and Saint Stephen's Day tapaninpäivä.
All official holidays in Finland are established by Acts of Parliament. On the other hand, laskiainen that is strongly part of the Finnish tradition is not defined as a public holiday in relation to the above-mentioned holidays.
Various sporting events are popular in Finland.